掌握这些GCSE科学专用英语词汇
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掌握这些GCSE科学专用英语词汇

2020-12-02...

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GCSE科学成绩9,稳了!

gcse阶段的科学类课程主要包括 gcse生物、gcse化学、gcse物理、gcse combined science 等。 对于中国学生而言,gcse科学类课程难点不只在于知识的掌握,更在于 适应全英文授课、掌握科学专业词汇以及全英文答题等方面 。可以说,中国学生掌握了科学课程专有英文词汇,语言方面过关,gcse阶段科学类课程的学习可以少一半烦恼!
英国最大的考试局——aqa考试局综合其科学课程的内容,给大家总结了一份科学类课程专用词汇表,其中汇集了gcse科学课程学习者需要掌握的最基本的专用英语词汇。
正在复习gcse的小伙伴们可以拿来使用,准备学习gcse科学课程的小伙伴们也可以提前了解哦~ 

aqa subject specific vocabulary ﹙science﹚
accuracy
a measurement result is considered accurate if it is judged to be close to the true value.
如果测量结果被判断为接近真实值,则被认为准确性高。
calibration
marking a scale on a measuring instrument. this involves establishing the relationship between indications of a measuring instrument and standard or reference quantity values,which must be applied. for example, placing a thermometer in melting ice to see whether it reads zero, in order to check if it has been calibrated correctly.
在测量仪器上标刻度。这涉及标记测量仪器指示与必须应用的标准或参考量值之间的关系。例如,在融化的冰中放置一个温度计,看看它的读数是否为零,以检查其是否被正确校准。
data
information, either qualitative or quantitative, that has been collected.
收集到的定性或定量信息。
error
see also uncertainty.
同“uncertainty”。
measurement error
the difference between a measured value and the true value.
测量值与真实值之间的误差。 

anomalies
these are values in a set of results which are judged not to be part of the variation caused by random uncertainty.
一组结果中的值,这些结果被判断为不属于由不确定性变化引起的部分结果。
random error
these cause readings to be spread about the true value, due to results varying in an unpredictable way from one measurement to the next. random errors are present when any measurement is made, and cannot be corrected. the effect of random errors can be reduced by making more measurements and calculating a new mean.
由于结果在不同的测量中以不可预测的方式变化,这将导致读数围绕真实值分布。进行任何测量时都会出现随机误差,并且随机误差不能被纠正。随机误差的影响可以通过进行多次测量和计算新的平均值来减少。
systematic error
these cause readings to differ from the true value by a consistent amount each time a measurement is made. sources of systematic error can include the environment, methods of observation or instruments used. systematic errors cannot be dealt with by simple repeats. if a systematic error is suspected, the data collection should be repeated using a different technique or a different set of equipment, and the results compared.
每次测量时,读数与真实值的差值是一致的。系统误差的来源包括环境、测量方法或使用的仪器。系统误差不能通过简单的重复实验解决。如果怀疑存在系统性误差,则应使用不同技术或不同设备重复数据收集,并比较结果。
zero error
any indication that a measuring system gives a false reading when the true value of a measured quantity is zero, eg the needle on an ammeter failing to return to zero when no current flows. a zero error may result in a systematic uncertainty.
当被测量的真值为零时,测量系统给出了错误读数的指示,如无电流通过时,安培计上的指针指向不是零。零误差可能导致系统不确定性。 

evidence
data which has been shown to be valid.
已被证明为有效的数据。
fair test
a fair test is one in which only the independent variable has been allowed to affect the dependent variable.
公平测试只允许自变量影响因变量。
hypothesis
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations.
为解释某些事实或观察而提出的提议。
interval
the quantity between readings, eg a set of 11 readings equally spaced over a distance of 1 metre would give an interval of 10 centimetres.
读数之间的间隔量﹙如一组11个读数,在1米的距离上等距分布,则间距为10厘米﹚。
precision
precise measurements are ones in which there is very little spread about the mean value. precision depends only on the extent of random errors – it gives no indication of how close results are to the true value.
精确测量是指在平均值上有很小的误差。精度只取决于随机误差的范围,但并没有指出结果与真实值有多接近。 

prediction
a prediction is a statement suggesting what will happen in the future, based on observation, experience or a hypothesis.
预测是一种基于观察、经验或假设对未来将会发生事情的陈述。
range
the maximum and minimum values of the independent or dependent variables; important in ensuring that any pattern is detected. for example a range of distances may be quoted as either: 'from 10 cm to 50 cm' or 'from 50 cm to 10 cm'.
自变量或因变量的最大值和最小值。例如,距离值域可以被引述为“从10厘米到50厘米”或“从50厘米到10厘米”。
repeatable
a measurement is repeatable if the original experimenter repeats the investigation using same method and equipment and obtains the same results. previously known as reliable.
如果原实验人员使用相同的方法和设备重复调查,并得到相同的结果,则测量是可重复的。之前被称为可靠的。
reproducible
a measurement is reproducible if the investigation is repeated by another person, or by using different equipment or techniques, and the same results are obtained. previously known as reliable.
如果由他人重复调查,或使用不同的设备或技术却得到相同的结果,则测量是可重复的。之前被称为可靠的。   

resolution
this is the smallest change in the quantity being measured ﹙input﹚ of a measuring instrument that gives a perceptible change in the reading.
这是测量仪器被测量的量﹙输入量﹚中最小的变化,给读数带来了可察觉变化。
sketch graph
a line graph, not necessarily on a grid, that shows the general shape of the relationship between two variables. it will not have any points plotted and although the axes should be labelled they may not be scaled.
显示两个变量之间关系的一般形状折线图,图不一定在网格上。示意图上不会绘制任何点,坐标轴应该被标记,但可能不会被缩放。
true value
this is the value that would be obtained in an ideal measurement.
这是在理想测量环境中可以得到的值。
uncertainty
the interval within which the true value can be expected to lie. whenever a measurement is made, there will always be some uncertainty or doubt about the result obtained. uncertainty can be expressed in terms of spread of values obtained. for example, a length of 56 cm ±2 cm would mean the true value could be anywhere between 54 cm and 58 cm.
估计与被测量的实际量值可能产生的偏差的范围。无论什么时候进行测量,所得到的结果总会有一些不确定性。不确定度可以用得到值的分布来表示。例如,长度为56 cm±2 cm意味着真实值可以在54 cm到58 cm之间的任何数值。
valid conclusion
a conclusion supported by valid data, obtained from an appropriate experimental design and based on sound reasoning.
通过适当的实验设计和合理推理得到的有效数据所支持的结论。
variables
these are physical, chemical or biological quantities or characteristics.
物理、化学或生物的数量或特征。
categoric
categoric variables have values that are labels, eg names of plants or types of material.
说明事物类别的名称,其取值是分类数据,如植物名称或材料类型。
continuous
continuous variables can have values ﹙called a quantity﹚ that can be given a magnitude either by counting ﹙as in the case of the number of shrimp﹚ or by measurement ﹙eg light intensity,flow rate etc﹚. previously known as discrete variable.
连续变量可以有数值﹙称为数量﹚,可以通过计数﹙如虾的数量﹚或测量﹙如光强度、流量等﹚给出数值大小。以前称为离散变量。
control
control variable is one which may, in addition to the independent variable, affect the outcome of the investigation and therefore has to be kept constant or at least monitored.
控制变量是指除了自变量之外,还可能影响结果的变量,因此必须保持这些变量不变或至少进行监测。 

dependent
dependent variable is the variable of which the value is measured for each and every change in the independent variable.
因变量是指对自变量的每一次变化需要测量其值的变量。
independent
independent variable is the variable for which values are changed or selected by the investigator.
自变量是调查者改变或选择值的变量。
gcse科学课程的学习于中国学生而言还是很有难度的,但其实真正掌握其中窍门,学好gcse科学类课程并不难!

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